Your Guide to an Efficient Filing System

Your Guide to Filing

An efficient filing system has become critical, but still, more often than not, filing systems are accepted without consideration to WHAT is being stored, WHY it's being stored, WHERE and HOW it's being stored. You need to ensure resources are not wasted by replacing your filing system just for replacement sake; It may well be that your current filing system will meet your required criteria by adopting different soft folder and indexing formats.

Many filing organizations will recommend replacing your current system with space efficient filtering systems without consideration to the filing process.

Filing Facts

The freedom of Information Act and the Data Protection Act has made a huge impact on the way records are stored.

Certain types of records have to be stored by law for certain periods of time.

The amount of paper and records stored by organizations is increasing every year.

Misplaced or lost records cost many organizations a substantial amount of money through lost time looking for them. Some types of records will also incur an organization a heavy fine if the record can not be produced on demand.

Clear indexing and identifiable records will speed up the retrieval process for when the file is needed – not when it is too late.

An ineffective filing system will take up more floor space costing the organization more money through floor space rates.

An efficient filing system will save time, space and money making your organization run much more effectively, leading to greater success.

Filing Audit

If you want to improve your filing efficiency you need to know the strengths and weaknesses of your current filing system. The questions below are a good list of questions that once answered will outline specific areas that need attention.

The Records

O How are your records stored? (Lever Arch, Foolscap file)
O What is the volume of records in linear meters
O Are there any duplicates or copies? If so what for?


O How effective is your indexing?
O What do you like or dislike about your indexing?
O Is misfiling a common occurrence?

File Storage

O How effective is the storage system?
O What do you like or dislike about it?
O What are the present floor space costs?

Record Access

O How frequently are records retrieved from the system?
O How many people use the filing system?
O Do the records need to be secure?
O Are records returned accurately and on time?

Record Tracking

O Are the records needed for filing Audits?
O How do you keep track of your records?
O Does your tracking system work?

Evaluating your system

The answers to the above should enable you to evaluate:

O Records which are not needed could have been archived or destroyed
O Records needing consolidation
O Any indexing improvements
O Effectiveness of the system

Creating an efficient filing system

O Avoid complicated indexing methods
O Avoid handwritten indexes
O Before opening a new record make sure its unique.
O When indexing a record think of the first identifying reference that comes to mind
O Be specific with titles, never use general or miscellaneous.
O Allocate a unique reference ID.
O All correspondence in the file should be dated or marked for reference
O Separate archive from live records

Further details on file creation refer to RMS 1.1 Standard written by the National Archives.

Tracking Records

What happens to your records when they are away from the system?

Case studies show that traditional tracking methods have become inefficient and unreliable An electronic system using a barcode or RFID tags will improve file tracking.

Locating and Controlling Records must be efficient. Record users should be able to file and retrieve records quickly and efficiently.

Tracking records in a filing system should:

O Assist with accurate retrieval of records
O Ensure access of records to staff authorized to do so
O Assist with record retention periods
O Record a complete history of a record's movement

If a record is removed from the system, the following information should be documented:

O The record's index details
O Who retrieved the record
O The date the record was retrieved
O A proposed return date and the actual return date

Conventional Filing Methods Vs End Tab Color Coded Filing Methods

It has been established by the industry that traditional suspended pocket filing is the most inefficient way of storing documentation. The suspended file pocket, by design, is estimated to waste between 15-20% of valuable storage space within the system. Furthermore, suspended file sockets have a tendency to split and as a result cause misfiling / lost files.

File Indexes in a hand-written or text-printed format can be difficult to read enhancing the opportunity for slow retrieval and misfiling.

Using standard folders, filing / retrieval times are slow and misfiling is a common occurrence purely because another folder hides a records index.

Portrait Lever Arch Files are designed with a fixed center of between 73-78mm, invariably the folder houses less capacity than the file offers wasting valuable shelf storage space, in addition because of its design, fewer storage levels can be achieved in a standard storage system .

By simply employing a color coded index system these inherent problems can be overcome.


Disposing of records is an important part of maintaining control of your records. Before a disposal schedule is put into place you must understand all of your legal and regulatory business requirements.

Legal and regulatory requirements including the Freedom of Information Act 2000, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Public Records Act 1958 all effect the disposal of records. All have imposed new and more stringent duties on public sector bodies with regards to records disposal.

So what does this mean?

Disposal does not mean destruction. It means any action taken to determine the fate of the record including transfer to an archive system. When it is not possible at any time to determine the disposal of the records they may be scheduled for review at a later date.

Retention usually means the length of time records are kept, sometimes known as disposal schedules. If a disposal schedule is not put into place, the tension is to store records indefinitely taking up unnecessary space.

Confidential information must be stored securely and disposed of by way of shredding.

For further details on disposing scheduling please refer to Disposal Scheduling (RMS 5.1) Standard written by the National Archives.

Alltel Reverse Mobile Phone Number Search

Among all the cell phone service providers in the US, Alltel is one of the largest ones. Just because a prankster is using a mobile phone to make anonymous prank calls to you does not mean that you cannot retrace the number to its registered owner even if it is an Alltel mobile. Such information was hard to get at just a few years back, but nowadays, it is widely available.

To find out the identity of the caller of an anonymous Alltel number, you can use an Alltel reverse mobile phone number search. This can be done on the internet, without having to disclose who you are. Which means you can anonymously discover someone else’s identity just from their phone number. You should be able to get the following information from using reverse lookup for a number:

  • Name, address, and other information about the owner
  • You can search anonymously
  • Free preliminary search
  • Accurate and updated information
  • Ability to search for unlisted numbers too
  • 100% money back guarantee

A single reverse mobile phone number search for an Alltel number costs about $15. Depending on why you want to know identity of the cell number owner, this may or may not be a reasonable price. For example, if you are interested in tracing the owner because you are getting regular prank calls, $15 is not too high a price to know the name and address of the caller. But if you only want to know who made a random wrong call to you, it may be a tad too high. In any case, you can decide whether the information is worth $15 to you or not when the time comes.

These reverse search companies also offer an annual membership for $40 if you want to trace more than two numbers in a single year. This service offers you unlimited searches for cell phone and unlisted landline numbers.

But there is a search you can do for which you do not have to spend any money. These directories allow you to make a preliminary search to find out if the number you are interested in is present in their database. They will let you see if that number is present in the database, the city and state where it is registered, and whether the directory contains the reverse lookup information for the number.

These directories also offer a 100% money back guarantee, which ensures that it is almost impossible for you to be dissatisfied with the service. You get exactly what you pay for and if you do not, you get your money back. In summary, to do a mobile phone number search on someone, you just go to the reverse lookup directory, enter the number you are interested in, press “search” and if there are results then you can pay the $15 fee to get the information you desire.

The Disadvantages of Reverse Phone Directory

The reverse phone directory is the online phone book which enables the users with the exciting offer to search for the identity of the cell phone numbers which are completely unknown to them. Few of the websites which provide such service to the users do not ask for any fees to gather the data for them. But it is seen that severs which give such online service charge a small amount of money in the form of fees from the user to give the complete and correct information of the person connected to that number.

Due to the advanced technology it is studied that there are many advantages for the users in using the reverse phone directory. But at the same time it has its own disadvantages which a user should be aware of.

1) The main disadvantage of reverse phone directory is that, anyone who owns your cell number can easily look up to all your personal details.
2) Yes, there is no privacy for your number in the process of reverse phone directory which gives the assurance to use the advanced technology.
3) In case you own a cell number or an unlisted number, still the phone book companies are capable of listing your all personal information such as name, address, your email id etc.
4) The information is readily made available within very less time for the user who is willing to pay the money for this simple online service.
5) Sometimes the servers which promise to give the true results turn out to be the fraud, as these keep the aim only to make money from the users in the wrong manner.
6) Also the information which is provided turns out to be the incorrect data.
7) It is also noted that few of these websites are equivalent to do the search for the required number as there is no record of that number listed in the reverse phone directory.
8) Also it is seen that there is irregular maintenance of the existing numbers.

The demand for such kind of services is increasing day by day. As a result many servers have registered their company as the database providing company. All the data is accumulated either manually or is collected by the outside sources. The mobile companies are authorized to forward the information of the user's cell number to the registered online servers.

This is why you should only be using a trustworthy reverse phone directory that delivers correct results consistently.

Essential Elements of Good Corporate Communication

Corporate communications is the means by which organizations build their brand value. In recent times, a number of organizations have realized that effective communication can not only avert crisis situations but also increase the brands power. With this dual objective in mind, a growing number of companies are laying a lot of emphasis on boosting their communication. These companies must keep a few pointers in mind while designing their corporate communication. Some of the key components of an effective communication are as follows:

  • Staying updated

We exist in a dynamic market environment where technologies are fast becoming obsolete. It is therefore extremely important to stay updated while preparing communication. It is also important to stay in focus. Therefore, companies should remain updated and share information about new launches and product developments with the media.

  • Search for new avenues of communication

A large number of companies are exploring new avenues of communication. It is felt that finding new means of corporate communication can provide first mover’s advantage to the company. In this regard, blogging has emerged as a wonderful medium to communicate in the marketplace.

  • Use the internet

Despite the fact that almost all companies in the world are using the Internet to establish and boost their presence in the market, this medium is still untapped. To begin with, smaller players in the market do not have proper websites. Some of the websites have no relevant information while some are not user friendly. Given that businesses depend on the Internet to a large extent it is important that companies optimize their online presence to attract new clients.

  • Share success and failure

Success and failure are a part of every organization. Sharing success and failure makes the corporate communication powerful. This is especially true for internal communication. As an employer, you should share your company’s success and failure with your employees. This breaks the hierarchical barriers that exist in organizations.

The Telephone – A Brief History

During the 1870’s, two well known inventors both independently designed devices that could transmit sound along electrical cables. Those inventors were Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray. Both devices were registered at the patent office within hours of each other. There followed a bitter legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell subsequently won.

The telegraph and telephone are very similar in concept, and it was through Bell’s attempts to improve the telegraph that he found success with the telephone.

The telegraph had been a highly successful communication system for about 30 years before Bell began experimenting. The main problem with the telegraph was that it used Morse code, and was limited to sending and receiving one message at a time. Bell had a good understanding about the nature of sound and music. This enabled him to perceive the possibility of transmitting more than one message along the same wire at one time. Bell’s idea was not new, others before him had envisaged a multiple telegraph. Bell offered his own solution, the “Harmonic Telegraph”. This was based on the principal that musical notes could be sent simultaneously down the same wire, if those notes differed in pitch.

By the latter part of 1874 Bell’s experiment had progressed enough for him to inform close family members about the possibility of a multiple telegraph. Bell’s future father in law, attorney Gardiner Green Hubbard saw the opportunity to break the monopoly exerted by the Western Union Telegraph Company. He gave Bell the financial backing required for him to carry on his work developing the multiple telegraph. However Bell failed to mention that he and his accomplice, another brilliant young electrician Thomas Watson, were developing an idea which occurred to him during the summer. This idea was to create a device that could transmit the human voice electrically.

Bell and Watson continued to work on the harmonic telegraph at the insistence of Hubbard and a few other financial backers. During March 1875 Bell met with a man called Joseph Henry without the knowledge of Hubbard. Joseph Henry was the respected director of the Smithsonian Institution. He listened closely to Bell’s ideas and offered words of encouragement. Both Bell and Watson were spurred on by Henry’s opinions and continued their work with even greater enthusiasm and determination. By June 1875 they realised their goal of creating a device that could transmit speech electrically would soon be realised. Their experiments had proven different tones would vary the strength of an electric current in a wire.

Now all they had to do was build a device with a suitable membrane capable of turning those tones into varying electronic currents and a receiver to reproduce the variations and turn them back into audible format at the other end. In early June, Bell discovered that while working on his harmonic telegraph, he could hear a sound over the wire. It was the sound of a twanging clock spring. It was on March 10th 1876 that Bell was to finally realise the success and communications potential of his new device. The possibilities of being able to talk down an electrical wire far outweighed those of a modified telegraph system, which was essentially based on just dots and dashes.

According to Bell’s notebook entry for that date, he describes his most successful experiment using his new piece of equipment, the telephone. Bell spoke to his assistant Watson, who was in the next room, through the instrument and said “Mr Watson, come here, I want to speak to you”.

Alexander Graham Bell was born on 3rd March 1847 in Edinburgh, Scotland. His family were leading authorities in elocution and speech correction. He was groomed and educated to follow a career in the same speciality. By the age of just 29 in 1876 he had invented and patented the telephone. His thorough knowledge of sound and acoustics helped immensely during the development of his telephone, and gave him the edge over others working on similar projects at that time. Bell was an intellectual of quality rarely found since his death. He was a man always striving for success and searching for new ideas to nurture and develop.

The telephone – important dates

1. 1874 – Principal of the telephone was uncovered.

2. 1876 – Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone, beating Elisha Gray by a matter of hours.

3. 1877 – The very first permanent outdoor telephone wire was completed. It stretched a distance of just three miles. This was closely followed in the U.S. by the worlds first commercial telephone service.

4. 1878 – The workable exchange was developed, which enabled calls to be switched between subscribers rather than having direct lines.

5. 1879 – Subscribers began to be designated by numbers and not their names.

6. 1880’s – Long distance service expanded throughout this period using metallic circuits.

7. 1888 – Common battery system developed by Hammond V. Hayes, allows one central battery to power all telephones on an exchange, rather than relying on each units own battery.

8. 1891 – First automatic dialling system invented by a Kansas City undertaker. He believed that crooked operators were sending his potential customers elsewhere. It was his aim to get rid of the operators altogether.

9. 1900 – First coin operated telephone installed in Hartford, Connecticut.

10. 1904 – “French Phone” developed by the Bell Company. This had the transmitter and receiver in a simple handset.

11. 1911 – American Telephone and Telegraph (AT & T) acquire the Western Union Telegraph Company in a hostile takeover. They purchased stocks in the company covertly and the two eventually merged.

12. 1918 – It was estimated that approximately ten million Bell system telephones were in service throughout the U.S.

13. 1921 – The switching of large numbers of calls was made possible through the use of phantom circuits. This allowed three conversations to take place on two pairs of wires.

14. 1927 – First transatlantic service from New York to London became operational. The signal was transmitted by radio waves.

15. 1936 – Research into electronic telephone exchanges began and was eventually perfected in the 1960’s with the electronic switching system (SES).

16. 1946 – Worlds first commercial mobile phone service put into operation. It could link moving vehicles to a telephone network via radio waves.

17. 1947 – Microwave radio technology used for the first time for long distance phone calls.

18. 1947 – The transistor was invented at Bell laboratories.

19. 1955 – Saw the beginning of the laying of transatlantic telephone cables.

20. 1962 – The worlds first international communications satellite, Telstar was launched.

21. 1980’s – The development of fibre optic cables during this decade, offered the potential to carry much larger volumes of calls than satellite or microwaves.

22. 1980’s, 1990’s, to present – Huge advances in micro electronic technology over the last two decades have enabled the development of cellular (mobile) phones to advance at a truly astonishing rate. A cellular (mobile) phone has its own central transmitter allowing it to receive seamless transmissions as it enters and exits a cell.

Some people believe the impact of the telephone has had on our lives is negative. Whatever your beliefs, it is un-doubtable that the invention and development of the telephone has had a massive impact on the way we live our lives and go about our every day business.

Thanks for reading. Please take the time to rate the above article at the bottom of this page.

What’s the Difference Between DS3 and T3 Bandwidth?

Do not be confused about the difference between DS3 and T3 circuits. These terms are really synonymous. Instead you should focus on what they can do for you … and the best scenarios for application.

Digital Signal (DS) is a system of classifying digital circuits according to the rate and format of the signal (DS) and the equipment providing the signals (T). DS and T designations have come to be used synonymously so that DS1 assumes T1, and DS3 implies T3.

A DS3 line (also known as a T-3) is an ultra high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at rates up to 45 Mbps. A DS3 line is equal to approximately 672 regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is fast enough to transmit full-motion, real-time video, and very large databases over a busy network. A DS3 line is typically installed as a major networking artery for large corporations and universities with high-volume network traffic. Other example applications include large call centers, enterprise wide VoIP and IP PBX systems, Internet service providers, research labs, video conference centers and software development companies. A DS3 is the second fastest, non optical connection offered in North America. A DS3 line is comprized of 28 T1 lines, each operating at total signaling rate of 1.544 Mbps.

DS3 circuits provide businesses and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) with up to 45 Mb / s of dedicated Internet connectivity. This is an ideal solution for users who have outgrown their T1 connections and are in search of unlimited, high-capacity access. A DS3 line actually consists of 672 individual channels, each of which supports 64 Kb / s. DS3 lines are extremely high bandwidth connections into a carrier's backbone. They typically include SLAs (Service Level Agreements) that guarantee uptime and performance.

The DS3 signal itself is composed of 28 DS1 signals and is constructed using a two-step multiplexing process. First, the 28 DS1 signals are multiplexed into seven DS2 signals. Second, the seven DS2 signals are multiplexed into one DS3 signal. Each multiplexing step uses bit stuffing to handle the different input frequencies. Overhead bits provide alignment, error checking, in-band communications, and bit stuffing control information.

Line rate: 44,736,000 b / s
Signals: 7 DS2 signals = 28 DS1 signals

Overhead bits:
56 bits total / frame
F-bits (framing) 28 bits /
M-bits (multiframing) 3 bits /
C-bits (stuffing) 21 bits
X-bits (message) 2 bits /
P-bits (parity) 2 bits /
Data bits between overhead bits 84

A DS3 connection is comprized up of two monthly charges: the local loop and the port charge. The local loop charge is the cost of the circuit provided by the Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) that allows DS3 access into the carrier's network. The loop charge is based on the distance from the customer's location to the edge of the carrier's network; The farther the customer is from the network, the more the loop will cost. Nearly every carrier prices loops differently so it is in your best interest to price DS3 service with several providers to ensure that you get the best deal.

DS Internet Access is the ideal solution for businesses that require high-bandwidth access at a reduced price. Whether you host high-traffic Web sites, support Web hosting or need high-capacity bandwidth on an as-needed basis, there's a level of DS3 service (Full or fractional) that will meet your needs. Fractional to full DS3 or T3 circuits run from speeds of 3 Mbps up to 45 Mbps.

For customers that require more bandwidth than a T1 line can provide but do not yet require the capacity of a full DS3 line, a fractional DS3 connection is the ideal solution. A fractional DS3 is similar to a full DS (T) 3, only with some of the channels turned off. This reduces the total monthly cost and provides additional capacity that can be turned up in a matter of days. Unfortunately, the DS3 (T) loop is still required for this service.

If a full DS3 line is more bandwidth that you really need, it is also possible to get Fractional DS3, which gives you a portion of full DS3 bandwidth at a lower cost. Of course, DS3 is also available in multiples to increase bandwidth, similar to bonded T1 service.

DS3 service can be deployed for a wide verity of applications. The most common uses are DS3 point-to-point, DS3 internet, DS3 frame relay, DS3 voice and DS3 VPN. The pricing for these connections varies broadly depending on the carrier, location of service and the application for which the connection is being used. Visit DS3 Bandwidth Solutions to obtain current "real time" rate quotes for your location.

Drainage System And Its Importance

Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used in form of storm water). It must be distinguished from flood control which is the prevention of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are two type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and combined system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and dispossess them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and it separately. In the combined system, both the storm water and domestic water are delivered through the same pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleaning velocity of (6.1
M / s). This self cleaning velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes should be placed at interval of 100-120m for the purpose of maintaining and servicing of the sewer. It should be noted that waste water in the sewer are typically transported by gravitational force rather than mechanical means (pumping) for convenient sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; The topography of the area should be well understood.

The storm water flow can be estimated by .278CIA where C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is usually got from table which is a function of factors that affect infiltration. From rainy data I can be estimated.
A can be estimated by using planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map. The waste water from industry, commercial centers and domestic uses are usually estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the users' discharges through the use of questionnaire and personal interview. The population of people and number of industries should be noted for this estimation.

The overall steps in layout sewers include:

  • Establish comprehensive map of the area including road contour, topography and utilities
  • Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
  • Manholes are shown with a dot at all its necessary locations as the junctions and its intermediate point of 100-120m interval
  • Sewers are designed to follow natural topography
  • Sewers are mostly branch network
  • Sewers or drains are usually located along the road
  • Design approach for sewers is as follows;
  • Estimate manning constant and select slope
  • Compute the section factor
  • Get the best hydraulic section either rectangle or trapezoid
  • Check the satisfaction of minimum velocity
  • Addition of adequate freeboard to avoid overflowing

The disposal of the waste water could be treated or not treated. However, the treatment is usually by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse important for economic growth. The treated or untreated waste could be used as a source of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and could be used as a source of recharge for ground water.

It is obvious in the cities of the developing countries that the most of construction industries do not take note of all the above mentioned process. As a result storm water follows drains that are not specified for them or overflows the drains there by causing erosions. On the other hand, some of the storm water are stagnant in the drains there by becoming a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This could result in increase of malaria and water related disease in the vicinity. All this is because; Most government in such cities have not yet understood the important of drainage systems and the role it plays in social- economic development.

Do not Buy an Expensive Personal Organizer – Create Your Own!

Do you often find yourself late for appointments? Do you feel unorganized? Have a hard time finding phone numbers, addresses or other important information when you need it? If so, then you need a personal organizer. A personal organizer system is an ideal way to help you stay organized and keep all of your information in one place. However, personal organizers – both paper-based and electronic – can be very expensive, and they usually contain categories or sections that you do not need.

Fortunately, it's not really necessary to spend a lot of money on a fancy organizer, PDA or smart phone. You can do it yourself and save a lot of money. Here's how you can create your own custom personal organizer that is inexpensive and perfectly meets your needs.

1. Materials you will need:

A. Small loose-leaf binder. You can find these at just about any statutory store, drugstore, discount, or grocery store. Make sure the binder has pockets in the front or back so you can put in a small calculator and your business cards.

B. Loose leaf lined paper. The paper needs to be the same size as the loose leaf binder.

C. Divider tabs.

D. Appointment calendar. These are small booklet-form calendars you can buy, or you may be able to get one for free from your bank or other merchants that offer these to their customers at the beginning of the year.

E. Small Calculator. Very inexpensive these days – sometimes as cheap as one dollar.

2. Create your categories:

A. Next, you will create the categories that you are going to put in your organizer. Common categories used by many people include addresses, telephone numbers, appointments, expenses, projects, to do list, notes, and so forth. You may create any category that suits your needs. Do not be afraid to be original, because this is going to be custom -made just for you.

B. Write the category names in the divider tabs. Place the tabs in the binder, and include several pieces of blank bound paper behind each divider section.

C. Put the calendar in the appointments section. Remove the outer cover first, and then punch holes along the inside crease of the calendar. Make sure the holes you punch are spaced the same as the binder rings.

D. Finally, put the calculator and your business cards in the inside pocket. The calculator will come in handy anytime you need to make calculations at work or when shopping, and your business cards will be readily accessible when you need to give them out.

3. Use it! Start using your new organizer right away. Any system, no matter how good it is, will be of no practical use if it is not used regularly. Get in the habit of writing down all of your business and personal appointments and important dates such as birthdays, anniversaries, holidays, etc. Also, write down the addresses, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, and other contact information for your family, friends and business contacts. Track your expenses, and write your to-do lists. Everything is effectively organized right there in one place to increase your efficiency and productivity.

That's basically it. You have created your own custom personal organizer for a fraction of the cost of the name brand organizer or a PDA. While it may not be as fancy-schmancy as one of the expensive organizer s, it will work just as well. In fact it will probably work better since you created this system just for you. Now, all you have to do is use it faithfully every day. You will be surprised at how well you will stay organized and keep all of your information in one place.

The Importance of Office Telephone Equipment

It may be that your office telephone equipment is, well, let's say a little past its prime!

Perhaps it:

  • Was purchased many years (or even decades!) Ago;
  • Enterprises lots of different makes of equipment that have somehow been patched together to provide your system;
  • Is not entirely reliable or able to support modern functions such as conferencing.

The harsh choice

If any of that sounds familiar, you realistically face two options:
· Do nothing and hope your business telephone system does not generate troubles for you (or sometimes – more troubles);
· Replace it with a new system.


A modern business telephony system from a reputable supplier (for example Siemens telephone systems) can typically be installed quickly and there is a range of configurations available to support the needs of the small companies right up to the largest.

Purchasing a new system may provide you not only with a more reliable set of office telephone equipment but it may also allow you to participate in modern communications exchanges with your customers and suppliers.

That may include things such as:

  • Video;
  • Conference calls;
  • Call re-routing and following;
  • Data exchanges;

Making the right choices

Selecting a new system is something that it's easy to get wrong and that is why specialist advice from experts is typically advisable. There are a number of reasons for that, not the least of which is that it's necessary to think a little about the future and to make sure that the selected system is capable of growing and evolving in tune with your business.

Having today's very best system may not be of much use if it's incapapable of expansion in future – it just becomes tomorrow's potential technical dinosaur.


Of course, if your immediate problem is the frequent crises with your existing system, then you may be worried about just keeping things going while you select your new system.

By taking out a maintenance contract with a skilled supplier of telephony services, you may be able to keep the worst at bay and buy yourself a little breathing space.

That may allow you to concentrate on finding a permanent solution to your office telephone equipment predicament.

Purpose of Shaft Grounding Systems in Marine Engineering

Purpose of Shaft Grounding Systems in Marine Engineering

It’s Science 101:

Electricity and water don’t mix.

That maxim is no clearer than in marine engineering, where seawater mixed with the electrical systems of a propeller can cause corrosion, loss of efficiency and system failure.

To completely protect a ship it’s important to electrically ground the ship’s propeller to the hull. Grounding the propeller limits corrosion and damage to the propeller’s shaft, bearings, and gear box.

Every motor-powered marine vessel should have some sort of shaft grounding system installed.

Shaft is Critical

One of the most critical parts in a marine vessel’s propulsion system is the shaft. Shafts that become corroded over time lose their efficiency. An overly corroded shaft can lead to system failure.

A grounding system is important.

That’s because as electricity runs through the engine to the propeller it mixes with water. The combination of the two – called an electro-chemical reaction – causes corrosion to the shaft.

The shaft provides thrust to move the vessel forward.

Shafts that become corroded over time due to electrochemical reactions with seawater lose their efficiency. They become weaker at transferring energy from the vessel’s engine to its exterior propulsion system.

A grounding system is also necessary to protect the drive-motors bearings from electrical damage. Excessive capacitive discharge can lead to electrical bearing failure.

At the same time, corrosion left unchecked can shorten any ship’s lifespan. This may cause maintenance problems too occur sooner than otherwise.

How Does It Work?

The principle behind shaft grounding is fairly simple.

In most marine vessels, propellers driven by electric current create charges along the exposed sections of the prop. A grounding system insures that as small a charge as possible escapes. The system is designed to ground out all electricity in the ship’s hull.

The grounding prevents free-flowing electrons from doing their damage.

As a result, both the propeller and engine are able to run longer and stronger due to less damage. In most cases, each propeller shaft should hold a ground system.

One type of a grounding system uses a layer of metal outside the shaft. This way, any electrochemical potential from seawater will be attracted to the outer layer as opposed to the shaft itself.

Types of Grounding Varies

The best kind of grounding system to use depends on the vessel.

There are different choices and owner can choose.

Some factors include the type of engine, size of the ship and composition of the hull. Also, systems get more complicated depending on the amount of charge handled. At the same time, the number of propellers and engines a vessel has also affects the choice of system.

Consult a Professional

It’s not always possible to prevent 100 percent corrosion on or within a marine vessel. But the importance of shaft grounding systems in marine engineering should not be overlooked.

Talk to a professional for the most current information on the purpose of grounding systems.