Key Telephone Systems Vs VoIP-IP PBX Phone Systems

What is the difference between a Key Telephone System & a PBX Phone System? With the introduction of VoIP or IP Phone Systems, this old-technology question is becoming all the more relevant in your final decision to purchase the right phone system today.

I have cut and pasted the following text from a Google search, just to show you a classic example of a technically correct explanation for this question that would not only be technical jargon to you, but also throw up a bunch of new questions.

A key system has telephones with multiple buttons that permit the user to directly select the telephone company’s central office phone lines. A key telephone system (KTS) is not a switch.

A private branch exchange (PBX) allows several trunks (outside lines) from the central office to be shared and the switching for selecting these lines is within the PBX. A PBX is sometimes referred to as a phone switch.

Key systems are usually found in small companies where few features are required. A PBX is usually found in larger companies that need more capabilities.

Was I right?

Questions?

– What is a switch? What is central office?- I didn’t quite understand why PBX is a phone switch and the KTS is not a switch?

– Why do I care? All I want is one phone on my desk for all my lines.

– It is great to get lots of features, but I still don’t know what I need and what I don’t.

– I am a small business, so do I have to look out for a Key Telephone System?

– Is the PBX Phone system not for me?

– Is the PBX more expensive?

– Well I don”t want to be stuck with something that is having few features, so what do I do?

– What are the features that a Key Telephone System has and the PBX doesn’t?

– I do know somebody who has a business phone system and he says its a PBX… he has a staff of six!! And I am confused! Did he get cheated? or Did he pay too much for something he didn’t need?

– Gosh, I can understand that there are different makes and models, but now I have to deal with different architectures in phone systems?

– Help!

Ok. Here is our version of the explanation…

And this is really the most important thing you will ever need to know in today’s market, where there are hundreds of new phone systems with VoIP technology, IP PBX Systems, IP Phone Systems that are competing with the Panasonic, Nortel, Avaya, NEC, Samsung types.

Just recently during a sales meeting, a prospective client was all in favour of the new VoIP PBX, but it was this KEY difference, (no pun intended!) that made them reject the VoIP PBX and choose the Traditional Key Telephone System from a well established manufacturer.

What was this “key “difference?

Key System Functionality is seen when each business phone or extension connected to your business phone system is able to have a button (called Line or CO Button) dedicated for each Phone Line that you have for calling out i.e. the local telephone company or CO lines.

When you press this Line Button on your phone, you are actually connected to one of the CO Lines from your phone company.

Lets say you have subscribed for 4 business telephone lines from your local phone company then you will have Line 1, Line 2, Line 3 and Line 4 Buttons on your business phone.

You are able to pick and choose what ever line you want to dial out. Also if one of the lines is faulty you will actually hear a crackling or if it is dead then you will hear nothing except a slight hiss. In short you are able to SEE all your lines coming into the office.

You are also able to see the status when someone in the office is using any of the CO Lines, because the corresponding Line Button will be lit up RED or have a Black Triangle against it (this feature is available in all business phone systems with slight variations.) If you press this Lit up Line Button, it will beep at you and if you have a display, it will show you the current status as LINE BUSY.

Based on my experience in the practical world, KEY Telephone Systems HAVE All and more features than PBX phone systems.

In fact this very feature of Having Line Buttons or Line Presence is a HUGE factor for most small businesses who usually have about 3 to 8 CO Lines and about 3 to 25 phones.

And what is a PBX Telephone System?

In fact, the PBX Telephone System, in the practical sense, does not have the Line Presence feature or CO Line Button feature at all!

Which makes the PBX System a bit inferior when compared to a Key Telephone System. Doesn’t it? Well, take my word..this is true. Key Telephone Systems have all the features you will possibly need, whether you are a big business or a small business.

It is true, though, that if you are a very very large business , like Microsoft, or GE or AT&T etc. i.e if you need lots and lots of CO Lines than the number of buttons on your business phone, then you would go for a pure PBX Telephone System.

(That doesn’t mean you cannot use a Key Telephone System for large organizations…Key Telephone Systems can be SETUP as PBX systems, but PBX systems CANNOT be setup as Key Telephone Systems.)

How do you setup a Key Telephone System as a PBX?

Very simple. Just remove all Line Buttons from your Key Telephone, and use “9” on your dial pad to get the first available line to dial out. That’s the exact difference between an IP PBX and the Traditional Phone System. You will not be able to put a line on hold at one phone, and take it on another phone. Simply because you do not have individual line buttons on an IP PBX Phone.

A PBX or Private Branch Exchange, is a business phone system that doesn’t need the ability to have Line Presence on all its business phones or extensions. Now there are technical differences in how they work, as a switch, etc etc. but when it comes to your understanding,that is the KEY feature.

Both phone systems have the ability to handle multiple lines, multiple conversations, auto-attendant, voice mail boxes, for a wide range of office sizes.

The critical point is that most of the IP PBX Systems or IP Phone Systems or VoIP Phone Systems DO NOT have the Line Presence feature.

And if you think that’s important to you, just like our last client did, then please don’t opt for the IP PBX System! VoIP PBX or IP PBX may not be for everybody.

But if you do need some great features, unlimited voicemail ports, voice-mail to email, unlimited extension capability, menu driven web interface for programming, call centre features, off-site remote extension included in the base price, then this is the system for you.

One Main Number and Multiple Incoming Lines

"We would like to have one main phone number and multiple phone lines for calling." Can a request like this to your phone company, be simpler than that?

You would be surprised to know how many different ways a phone company can set up your lines. And each solution has its own set of pros and cons.

Over-lines, hunt-groups, roll-over lines, pilot number, real number are the common terms here to be aware of.

Over-lines – There is one main number or pilot number which is the first line, and then there are over-lines or additional lines. Each line physically connected to your phone system to be able to provide you with multiple lines to dial out.

For example, if you need three lines coming into your office, then the request would be for one main number or pilot line and 2 over-lines or you can call it a one plus two over-line system.

If you need 4 lines coming in, then the request would be for 1 main or pilot line and 3 over-lines, ie one plus three over-line system.

Each of the over-lines are separate phone lines, with the same phone number attached to them ie your main or pilot phone number of your business.

The over-line system ensures that when your first line is busy, the next incoming call will ring on the next over-line, till all your lines are busy.

AND, more importantly, it will ensure that each of them will display your MAIN phone number as caller ID when you call out.

This is not the case with the hunt-group or multi-line system.

10 Steps to Effective Communication

At the root of any successful leader is a strong ability to communicate. Sure, there have been leaders who have ascended into the highest positions and did not have that skill, but they probably did not last long. This point was illustrated recently as I listened to a NPR program about the failure of the big banks on Wall Street. When Congress grilled executives from these institutions about why they did not catch the risky investments that were being made that extremely failed, their answers were all the same and quite simple – we did not know. It was their job to know and either nobody told them or they did not catch it in the data they had access to. No flags were raised; Nobody asked so nobody told. This is definitely a communication meltdown that had widespread negative consequences.

What is communication? Communication in life is the pinnacle of every successful – and not so successful – relationship. According to Webster's dictionary, communication is defined as a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents, which share a repertoire of signs, and semiotic rules. Communication is commonly defined as "the importing or exchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs". Although there is such a thing as one-way communication, communication can be perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progress of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information) .

Why is communication important? Often times, we have a message which we want to communicate or we want the receiver of message to understand our message in the same sense as we convey it. Take for example a company's need to raise the cost of health insurance. Often times, this is conveyed through a written document to the employees at open enrollment time. The employee's reaction is usually anger towards the company for making them pay more money for health coverage. The miss here is that the company is not sharing as much information as they should help the employee understand how the raising cost of health insurance coverage affects the company and their contribution too. A company should give the employee a total compensation statement at that time so all employees can see how much the company invests in him / her as individuals. Giving each employee a clear, individualized picture and then telling the employee the cost is raising would change the way the message is received. There may still be anger, but it will be focused on the right culprit of raising costs, which are the insurance and medical companies and not the employer. Effective communication helps in that the message is enable to achieve its goals and helps in receiving the desired response from the reader of the message. Effective communication helps organizations in keeping good relations with their customers and employees; Forwarding information effectively helps in avoiding any dispute that can arise because of a misunderstanding.

The 4 Types of Communication. I used to work with someone who I refer to as a "chit-chatter." He'd walk the halls every day knocking on doors and say, "do you have a minute? ' An hour and a half later he'd still be sitting there rambling. I learned very quickly that my body language could help deter this activity without me having to be rude or disengaging. "Do you have a minute?" He'd start to walk in the door before I would answer and I would throw my hand up in the "stop" mode. Right now, can I get you on my calendar for later today? "His answer was always," Oh. No, I just came by to say hello. "That one gesture changed the whole dynamic of the conversation. There are 4 types of communication that are present in our lives: verbal, non-verbal, written and visual.

Verbal Communication: Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language and speaking. Language is said to have originated from sounds and gestures. There are many languages ​​spoken in the world. The bases of language formation are: gender, class, profession, geographic area, age group and other social elements. Speaking is an effective way of communicating and is again classified into two types viz. Interpersonal communication and public speaking. Good verbal communication is an inseparable part of business communication. In a business, you come across people from various ages, cultures and races. Fluent verbal communication is essential to deal with people in business meetings. Also, in business communication self-confidence plays a vital role which when clubbed with fluent communication skills can lead to success. Public speaking is another verbal communication in which you have to address a group of people. Preparing for an effective speech before you start is important. In public speaking, the speech must be prepared according to the type of audience you are going to face. The content of your speech should be authentic and you must have enough information on the topic you have chosen for public speaking. All the main points in your speech must be highlighted and these points should be delivered in the correct order. There are many public speaking techniques and these techniques must be practiced for an effective speech.

Non-Verbal Communication: Non-verbal communication involves physical ways of communication, like, tone of voice, touch, smell and body motion. Creative and aesthetic non-verbal communication including singing, music, dancing and sculpture. Symbols and sign language are also included in non-verbal communication. Body language is a non-verbal way of communication. Body posture and physical contact convey a lot of information. Body post matters a lot when you are communicating verbally to someone. Folded arms and crossed legs are some of the signals delivered by a body posture. Physical contact, like, shaking hands, pushing, patting and touching expresses the feeling of intimacy. Facial expressions, gestures and eye contact are all different ways of communication. Reading facial expressions can help you know a person better.

Written Communication: Written communication is writing the words which you want to communicate. Good written communication is essential for business purposes. Written communication is practiced in many different languages. E-mails, reports, articles and memos are some of the ways of using written communication in business. The written communication can be edited and amended many times before it is communicated to the second party to wh the communication is intended. This is one of the main advantages of using writing as the major means of communication in business activity. Written communication is used not only in business but also for informal communication purposes. Mobile SMS is an example of informal written communication.

Visual communication: The last type of communication out of the four types of communication, is the visual communication. Visual communication is visual display of information, like, topography, photography, signs, symbols and designs. Television and video clips are the electronic form of visual communication.

What is Your Communication Style? I come from a family where being direct is considered combative. To me, honesty is the best policy and the only way to be honest is to be direct. Of course that ends up causing conflict between myself, my mother and my siblings because they would rather agree with the person to their face then disagree behind the scenes. My style is direct and their style is harmonious (with a bit of passive aggressiveness in my opinion, but that's a blog for another time!) I have adjusted my style to reduce the conflict and I have learned to get my point across without ruffling anyone's Feathers. Does it always work? No, but it has reduced my stress and those around me. It is critically important to know your style of communication and recognize the style of others so that you can learn to be flexible in your message without compromising it and drastically reduce the possibility of miscommunication. I found an interesting article that had some critically important information relative to communication style: The 21 most important words in the English language:

The two most important words:

Thank You

The three most important words:

All is forgiven

The four most important words:

What is your opinion

The Five most important words:

You did a good job

The six most important words:

I want to understand you better

The least important word:

I "

The Power of Listening: There is nothing that will derail effective communication sooner than one of the parties not really listening to the other. This recently happened to a client with the financial aid office of the University of Michigan, where his child attends school. Every single person that he has deal with in that office since his child first attended there in 2009 had been short, curt and robotic in conveying the Federal guidelines for student aid. Clearly, there is a budget that they adhere to and there is no going outside the box, which is a total disconnect for him as the recipient of financial aid when he attended the Western Michigan University years ago. HIs perception was that the financial aid office exists to help student find a way to fund their education when they do not have money out of pocket to cover the entire cost. The University of Michigan's Financial Aid Office employees make it clear through their words and non-verbal communication that their mission is to limit the amount of funds that that go to each student to meet some secret budget goal. He tried on several occasions to explain this to the head of the department and each time she twisted it around and blamed him for misunderstanding the counselers, or not following their guidelines, or taking what was said out of context. Not once did she acknowledge that she heard what my client was saying or that she would try and help him find financial resources to help him cover the $ 26,000 annual cost of school. His child asked, "How can I find more money to go to school?" The counselor responded, "By getting married, having a baby, joining the military or your parents dying." He said, "None of those are a remote possibility, to which he responded," Well maybe you should have chosen a school that was more affordable to you. "His child worked hard to get accepted to U of M and he worked hard to Save enough money for him to go there. "The counselor was actually conveying the Federal guidelines of student aid to him, but it was the way he conveyed it that was totally inappropriate. Was very defensive and blamed the entire issue on me in that he was not accepting that these were the guidelines. They were telling his son in terms of getting more aid. The last exchange my client had with the department head, she said, "Please accept my apologies for any response you feel was inappropriate." My client did not feel the responses were inappropriate , They were. He totally understands the Federa L guidelines, and she repeatedly and robotically recited them to him over and over and over again, missing the point. Putting the blame back on my client and his son clearly showed she never listened what I was trying to say and my client was not heard. That's an unfortunate gap between a parent and a major function at a major institution.

Managing Conflict: To say my client had a conflict with the U of M financial aid office is an understatement. It was a major communication breakdown, one I'm sure he'll pay the price for at a later date – literally. However it is a normal part of life to have conflict at home, in the workplace, in any situation where two or more people are exchanging information. What is key is how we manage conflict and bring it to successful resolution. In the case of the financial aid office, my client has agreed to disagree, take what they will give and find another resource to cover the gap in tuition. The head of that office will never get what was said to her and he can live with that, it's her loss. There are many effective ways to defuse a tense situation and one thing that has been successful is to decide – what can you live with and what are you not willing to budge on? Knowing conflict happens and being armed with tools to manage through it and resolve it are keys to having the right mindset while it is happening. My client's situation was unfortunate but not personal and I guarantee he is not the first nor will he be the last to experience a brick wall when it comes to the U of M financial aid office. Removing the emotion and defusing the situation helped bring this to a reasonable conclusion.

How Your Attitude Affects Communication: Every attitude is a combination of feelings, beliefs and evaluations. Behavior refers to the reactions or actions of an object or organism and attitude predicts behavior. Persuasive communication changes attitudes, which then affects behavior, which then creates a more productive environment. Persuasive communication involves openly trying to convince another to change their behavior and only works when the source is credible and trustworthy. Addressing trust and credibility first among your coworkers and other critical relationships you have lays a strong foundation. Learning to clearly state your position, followed by supporting arguments and obtaining others' agreement are the keys to persuasion.

Giving and Receiving Feedback: Feedback is a type of communication that we give or get. Sometimes, feedback is called "criticism," but this seriously limits its meaning.

Feedback is a way to let people know how effective they are in what they are trying to accomplish, or how they affect you. It provides a way for people to learn how they affect the world around them, and it helps us to become more effective. If we know how other people see us, we can overcome problems in how we communicate and interact with them. Of course, there are two sides to it: giving feedback, and receiving it.

Getting Feedback: Some people experience feedback as pure criticism and do not want to hear it. Others see it as spiritually crushing; A confirmation of their worthlessness. Still others only want to hear praise, but nothing that might suggest imperfection. That's not the case for everyone, of course. Some people are willing to accept feedback and seek it out, even if it is sometimes disturbing, because they believe they can grow from it. It comes down to whether you believe feedback will harm you or benefit you.

This is not to say that we should always have to accept feedback or the manner in which it is sometimes given. We all have the right to refuse feedback, and we can expect feedback to be given in a respectful and supportive manner. But for every positive and open way of accepting feedback, there's an opposite; A negative and closed manner which pushes feedback away and keeps it at bay.

Negative / Closed Style

Defensive: defends personal actions, frequently objects to feedback given. Attacking: verbally attacks the feedback giver, and turns the table. Denies: refutes the accuracy or fairness of the feedback. Disrespectful: devalues ​​the speaker, what the speaker is saying, or the speaker's right to give feedback. Closed: ignores the feedback, listening blankly without interest. Inactive listening: makes no attempt to "hear" or understand the meaning of the feedback. Rationalizing: finds explanations for the feedback that dissolve any personal responsibility. Patronizing: listens, but shows little interest. Superficial: listens and agreements, but gives the impression that the feedback will have little actual effect.

Positive / Open Style

Open: listens without frequent interruption or objections. Responsible: willing to hear what's being said without turning the table. Accepting: accepts the feedback, without denial. Respectful: recognizes the value of what is being said and the speaker's right to say it. Engaged: interacts appropriately with the speaker, asking for clarification when needed. Active listening: listens carefully and tries to understand the meaning of the feedback. Thoughtful: tries to understand the personal behavior that has led to the feedback. Interested: is genuinely interested in getting feedback. Sincere: genially want to make personal changes if appropriate.

Giving Feedback

The other end of feedback is giving it. Some people deliver feedback with relish; After all, it's easier to give advice than take it. Some use feedback as a weapon, or offer it as tit-for-tat. For others, feedback is a great way to be critical. How you deliver feedback is as important as you accept it, because it can be experienced in a very negative way. To be effective you must be tuned in, sensitive, and honest when giving feedback. Just as there are positive and negative approaches to accepting feedback, so too are there ineffective and effective ways to give it.

Ineffective / Negative Delivery

Attaching: hard hitting and aggressive, focusing on the weaknesses of the other person. Indirect: feedback is vague and issues Hinted at rather than addressed directly. Insensitive: little concern for the needs of the other person. Disrespectful: feedback is demeaning, bordering on insulting. Judgmental: feedback is evaluative, judging personality rather than behavior. General: aimed at broad issues which can not be easily defined. Poor timing: given long after the prompting event, or at the worst possible time. Impulsive: given thoughtlessly, with little regard for the consequences. Selfish: feedback meets the giver's needs, rather than the needs of the other person.

Effective / Positive Delivery

Supportive: delivered in a non-threatening and encouraging manner. Direct: the focus of the feedback is clearly stated. Sensitive: delivered with sensitivity to the needs of the other person. Considerate: feedback is intended to not insult or demean. Descriptive: focuses on behavior that can be changed, rather than personality. Specific: feedback is focused on specific behaviors or events. Healthy timing: given as close to the prompting event as possible and at an opportune time. Thoughtful: well considered rather than impulsive. Helpful: feedback is intended to be of value to the other person.

The Importance of Feedback

Feedback is a must for people who want to have honest relationships. A powerful and important means for communication, giving feedback connects us, and our behavior, to the world around us.

Communication and the Digital Age: There are now multiple means of causing communication barriers between people; Texting, Facebook-ing, Twittering, instant messaging, voice mail and email to name a few. Stephen Covey's Time Management program preaches for us to be the master of technology versus letting technology being our master. I recently attended a baseball game and when I looked around the stadium, I saw a sea of ​​people looking at their cell phones. They were texting, taking pictures, uploading them to Facebook, talking – it was a new age of mass media blitz. I frequently get instant messages from clients and potential clients asking me in-depth life changing questions and expecting a simple answer in return. It's hard to be an effective communicator in the digital age without we learn how to use these means in a persuasive and appropriate manner. A client of mine has an employee who regularly fires off scathing emails. My client gets constant complaints about the employee who is perceived as being combative and abrasive. I advised her to sit down with the employee, show her examples of the appropriate emails, advise her to a 24-hour "cool down" period, then initially reviewing the emails with someone they can trust before hitting the send key. A month later the client reported that 9 out of 10 emails were scrapped before sending. The employee then learned the skill of not reacting via email to other communication that was angering her. It is especially important in this economic climate where we're doing much more with much less and tensions are high.

Ask yourself the following questions:

How would your professional and personal life change if you could successfully master these basic skills? Can you afford not to make the investment to improve your communication? You will be amazed at the startling turn your life will take once you learn how to communicate effectively and successfully. Did you know that the most important asset to a company or to a client is a person who communicates effectively, someone who has the ability to influence and persuade others? Are you communicating successfully and effectively to influence others or are you just talking?

I. 2007, Stoney deGeyter; Pole Position Marketing. Ii. 2009, Phil Rich, Ed.D., MSW, DCSW; Self-Help Magazine.

The Invention of the Telephone

The telephone is a wonderful invention. Since it was first introduced into the marketplace it has made a world of difference in many people's lives. The fact that the telephone can be used in an emergency situation is probably the most beneficial of all. The telephone has saved many lives over the years, and without a telephone it would be impossible for anyone to call the police, fire department or ambulance.

Since it was first invented, the telephone has gone through many of changes. The first telephone lines were run on towers that made a city or suburb look very unattractive. These days all of the cables are run underground. The first telephone was a very large rotary type device. Nowadays you can find phones as small as the palm of your hand or even smaller – enter the cell phone.

It is Convenient

The first thing that people realized about the telephone is that it was a very easy means of communication. There was no longer the need to get on your horse with a letter and gallop down to the next street or state for that matter. You could simply pick up the receiver and dial a number to speak to the person on the other end. In the earlier days of the telephone, however, it was seen as a luxury. This meant that it was only installed in houses of people who could afford it, or who had extra money.

Today, the telephone is affordable to almost everyone, it is the lifeblood to our economy. Everyone knows that you can not run a successful business without a telephone. This device is no longer a luxury, it is a means to an end, it is a way to make you more money and keep our economy thriving. It has also allowed us to create a new form of business – formerly the Internet ie e-Commerce.

Telephone Equipment

The telephone has many different types of gadgets, features and accessories that go with it these days. If you are looking for even more convenience and uses for the telephone you will need to take a look at a few of these:

Caller Identity: Know who is calling with a new caller line identity device. It is a tool that you will hook up to your existing telephone or it is added by your telephone provider. The device is made up of a simple LCD digital screen that displays the number of the person calling you. This way, if you do not know the number, you do not need to answer.

Conference Speaker Phone: This is especially helpful in any business, whether it is small or large. If you find that you will be on calls where you need more than one person on the telephone, the speaker phone is for you.

Different Types of Telephones

You will find that there are many different types of telephones out on the market today. This includes both analog and digital models for the home line device, business phones, satellite phones and the cell phone. You will also find that the home line telephone comes in many wireless connections too, for security, ease, mobility, etc. Alexander Graham Bell never would have guessed that his invention would have gotten this famous.

What is a PABX and How Does it Work?

The acronym PABX stands for Private Automatic Branch Exchange, which is basically just another term for a telephone system, also known as a switchboard. These units are usually used as an internal telephone system in offices.

PABX systems will often have a lot of internal lines connecting to one main switchboard. The reason that the word branch is referred to in the term, is because there are many different mediums connected to a PABX system, connecting all aspects of the system within the business together. PABX systems are incredibly complex machines in that they can be used as telephones, modems and fax machines, and can be used for employees to communicate internally.

How a PABX essentially works is that it is a modem which acts as the central control station. Whenever a new call comes in, it is routed through this control station. Since the PABX has been assigned to special codes per each phone number within in the company, or each extension if you will, the call is going to be directed to the correct place using that assigned code. A PABX can also be programmed so that it greets each caller with an automated message before the call goes through to the assigned line. With regards to the fax function, you can program a line that goes through from the central control station to the fax machine. The machine can also be programmed to go to numerous fax machines.

PABX machines are now being modernised in that they can now be controlled by a computer system which tracks all incoming and outgoing calls. This computer system can be personalised in that it limits who makes calls to certain networks. It is also a very good way of keeping track of employees’ private telephone usage at work.

PABX machines are excellent for businesses because they can be used as auto attendants. By doing this the call will be handled to a certain extent even if there is no-one to answer the call. In this respect, PABX systems are highly effective for large businesses that receive a lot of calls. PABXs are lovely office machines as they have a wide range of different functions besides the ones mentioned above. PABX systems can be used to conduct conference calls, which is incredibly useful if business people do not have time to meet for a face to face meeting. This is very helpful for international clients that can only be met with telephonically.

In conclusion it can easily be seen that a PABX can be of great use to a business. There are many telecommunications companies that sell PABX systems and offer special deals. Some of these deals include actually renting the unit for your company and paying a monthly fee to use it. PABX systems can be quite expensive, and therefore there are packages available which will allow the company to pay a monthly fee to pay off their PABX system. With regards to what it is offering your company in respect to communications and professionalism, the cost can be justified!

How to Get a Cell Phone Contract With Bad Credit

As a former employee of a cell phone carrier I found that many consumers are skeptical of purchasing a cell phone due to their undesirable credit history. They often believe that prepaid is their only option but they would prefer a contract provider. Many people do not realize that even with subprime credit they may still be eligible for a mobile phone contract. 80% of the customers with the misconception that they can not get a contract were often surprised when they received approval for a cell phone plan. If you have bad credit and prefer better quality cell phones over prepaid then here are a few steps you can take to get a contract phone.

Pay a down payment

Many customers with bad credit may be asked to pay a down on their contract. The price can range from $ 50 to $ 400 depending on the carrier. You get the money back with interest after waiting two years. Go through the application process to find out what you qualify for. If your down payment requirement is at the low end then go for it but if it's at the high end then move on.

Apply with various carriers

If you're preferred cell phone carrier is charging you a very high down payment then apply at another company. Some carriers pick up customers that their competitors may reject. Its amazing how one carrier may classify you as a high risk but another may consider you to be a prime client.

Go with credit lenient companies

Not all cell phone companies use the same process for credit checks. Each company has different standards and requirements than there competitors. It's been my experience that Sprint and T-mobile usually provide great deals for customers with bad credit.

Sprint's credit requirements are the lowest of the major US carriers. Many customers who were returned by other carriers almost always get a contract with sprint. Usually they ask for a $ 50 down payment but may be up to $ 150. Sprint has some of the lowest priced service plans in the nation that helps to keep monthly bills to a minimum.

T-mobile is also a good choice for customers with low credit scores. In addition to having low credit requirements, T-mobile takes it a step further by vanquishing down payment and providing account options form customers for subprime customers. The first of two options is called the even more plan. In this plan the customer still has the ability to purchase phones at a discount price but they have to pay the first month's bill up front. Activation fees are automatically washed, saving you a large sum of money if you purchased more than one phone. The second option is the even more plus plan. This option is a no contract plan. You have to pay full price for the phones but the monthly fees are cheaper than the even more plan. After a year of timely payments on the even more plus plan T-mobile will review your account to determine if you're eligible to upgrade to a contract plan.

What Is Toyota Production System?

What is Toyota Production System (TPS)?

Toyota production system is an efficient productive system that is accepted worldwide by many of the businesses and was generally proved to be one of the most effective ways to make profit and to balance production along with money circulation. Toyota production system is a simple way of making things fast, quick, and productive. It is well-known for its efficiency and its just-in-time concept that results in a continuous product managing process and a well self-defense plan for a business, not to keep numbers of defective products in storage. TPS is famous for its productive management process that comes together in pair, the Jidoka and the Just-in-Time concept, in which a specific number of products are produced to prevent large numbers of stocks that are not needed. Both the Jidoka and the Just-in-Time concept are widely-used in world-wide businesses and are guaranteed to be the two best ways to manage the production process and to maintain stability in a business efficiently.

Its Origin

Form its name, 'Toyota' is a company from the land of the rising sun, Japan. Japan is indeed the world's most technological country filled with technology and a wide-variety of rituals and cultural performances that wows the world with its beautiful nature as well as its wise business management and productivity processes. Developed by Taichii Ohno, the TPS or the Toyota Production System functions efficiently and was shared globally to all businesses. Many Japanese philosophers at that time thought out ideas on managing process and productivity in order to improve businesses and to enhance their efficiency through products and their high quality. Eiji Toyoda cave employees and workers values ​​and importance which increased productivity and teaming within offices, faculties, and companies.

The Jidoka

The Jidoka is a simple concept of visualization and determination of problems. It ensures that all machines or capitals work well without any technical problems. If any problems are detected or if the machines are malfunctioned, then the machines will automatically stop once normal processes are done. Jidoka is generally a quality testing visualization concept that will ensure businesses their product quality and minimize malfunctions of capitals, stock, as well as loss of profit. With the Jidoka concept, products with high quality will be produced. These satisfying quality products will be further passed on to next processes. Jidoka is considered simple and technological due to its multiple installations of the andons or the problem-display screen in different parts of the company that will show the operators problems detected by the system. These operators can work on many parts of the production system and can monitor numbers of machines all at the same time with the help of technology and a well-developed plan, the Jidoka concept. This concept will benefit the whole system being increasing productivity while improvements lead to a better processing capacity

Pros and Cons of Jidoka

Pros:

1. It eliminates wastes or products that are defective or malfunctioned

2. It ensures product quality

3. Provide safety for workers and employers

4. Keeps goals oriented

5. More percentage of reaching set profits and expectations

Cons:

1. High cost of technological tools

2. Specific target market

3. Result in an unstable productivity

4. Strict rules and regulations

Just-in-Time

Just-in-Time is a quick, fast concept in the production line that ensures its operations safety by elimination of wastes and by producing only what is needed by setting how much products should be produced and when they should be produced which will include ways to Store products safely. The Just-in-Time concept is primarily used in motor or vehicle businesses which deals very much with production of vehicles and the transportation plans which includes period of time needed to complete orders and ways vehicles are transported.

How Just-in-Time works

1. Once an order is placed, it should be delivered as quickly as possible to the first line of production.

2. The assembly line or those in charge of vehicle parts like wheels, colors, and seats has to have all parts well-equipped and ready made in order to function automatically as soon as possible once an order is placed.

3. The numbers or the amount of parts has to be the same for both the assembly line as well as the parts-producing process.

4. The preceding process group has to have spare amounts of all parts of a vehicle and should have at least an amount retrieved by the business's operator.

By following 5 simple steps in the production process or line, elimination of wastes and inconsistencies will ensure profit expectations as well as standard requirements of the businesses. One of the concepts within the Just-in-Time system is the Kanban system. The Kanban systems use the idea of ​​supermarket management and productivity. The Kanban system uses codes, serial numbers, and names to make all parts of the production process easy and flexible. It will help improve the structure of the production process as well as keep the processes on tract. The supermarket storage idea provides needed amount of products in relation to the demands in the market and so it is convenient for customers because products are in stock just only in a limited amount.

Pros and Cons of Just-in-Time Concept

Pros:

1. Funds that were kept and tied up in inventories could be used later in other processes

2. Quick response to customer

3. Product quality ensured

4. Defect rates are reduced

5. Greater potential output

Cons:

1. Expensive and costly to introduce

2. Not enough products in stock

3. Not enough time to complete orders / overhaul of productivity

4. Strict rules and regulations

Summary

The Toyota Production System or the TPS is indeed an efficient way to ensure product quality and make sure products are produced fast and quickly. TPS allows high productivity and an increase in demand for products. Components of specific products can be ordered accordingly; Large amount of stocks are not kept and wastes are eliminated effectively to reach the company's goals that are set and directed as well as reach standard requirements.

The Human Body Maintenance System

The human body consists of organs and organ systems which work together to maintain both internal and external conditions of the body. The importance of the human body’s maintenance system is indeed very high. Individuals can easily get sick due to the imbalances of the internal conditions and different fluctuations that can occur anytime due to any cause. External conditions can greatly affect the internal conditions of the human body especially when the immune system or other systems work inefficiently within the human body. There are several factors causing these changes and fluctuations. However, the human body tries its best to maintain the right condition or the dynamic equilibrium (which is around 37 degrees Celsius).

The basic maintenance system works with blood vessels, tissues, and tissue fluids as they are important factors to regulate changes in the body condition. By adding or removing the substances from blood vessels, tissues, and tissue fluids, the five main body systems work effectively to reach dynamic equilibrium.

The Five Main Systems

One of the most important systems is the lymphatic system. The system works by protecting blood cells from contracting all kinds of diseases. The respiratory system consists of the lungs. The lungs are responsible for the breathing process which requires the intake of Oxygen and the removal of Carbon Dioxide. The digestive system consists of the standard organs like the stomach, the intestines, gallbladder, liver, and other accessory organs which include: mouth, teeth, tongue, the salivary gland, and the esophagus. The digestive system mainly accepts the intake of food and has the ability to digest them into nutrients and substances the body needs. It is important to know all organs and parts play major roles in each system. For example, the saliva plays an important role in the first step of digestion. Because it contains an enzyme called Amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar, the digestive system is able to work efficiently in process as it then sends the food substances to the stomach then to the intestines to continue the process. The last system which helps in maintaining the body’s equilibrium is the urinary system. The urinary system helps to maintain the body’s temperature as it gets rid of nitrogenous wastes, helps regulate the fluid level, and maintain the chemical content of blood in the body. The urinary system generally flushes out wastes not needed by the human body. The system consists of the urinary bladder and the kidneys.

Reproduction and Development

The reproduction process of human beings is as similar as birth processes of other organisms. Through the natural process which requires help from both female and male organs located around the pubic area, humans reproduce and is able to develop future generations. The female reproduction system consists of the ovary, the vagina, the uterine tube, and the external genitalia. The male reproductive system includes the testis and the penis. The testis is where the conduction of semen starts where it then sends the sperms out through the penis.

Looking Deeper into Homeostasis

Homeostasis is basically the maintenance of the human body’s dynamic equilibrium. To maintain the right condition of the human body, there are several requirements.

The body needs to reach dynamic equilibrium as explained in the earlier paragraphs. If any rapid change occurs within the body, the organs and the systems have to work together through two methods: negative feedback and positive feedback. These two methods will allow adaptation to occur through primary homeostatic mechanism which includes the sensor, the control center, and the effecter.

Negative Feedback

The negative feedback generally works by disabling the sensor which is activated in the beginning of the adaptation process. Once the temperature in the body has changed or if any other substances unknown to the human body enter the system, the sensor activates itself. Once the sensor activates itself, it sends signals to the control center which will awake the effecter to make its move in the infected area or problem. The sensor, though, is to be deactivated once the signals were sent to the effecter; this is mainly the reason why the whole process is called the negative feedback. To make things simpler, compare the negative feedback with the process of photosynthesis in plants. Once the high level of carbon dioxide is detected by the sensor, it sends signals to the control center which allows more light to be taken up in the process as the intake of carbon is too high. The effecter makes several changes while the sensor already deactivates itself.

The Positive Feedback

The positive feedback is the total opposite of the negative feedback as the difference is that the sensor remains active throughout the process. The positive feedback mainly has the intention to push levels out of normal ranges and thereby increase the stimulus. The easiest way to illustrate positive feedback would be when blood platelet accumulation occurs in the body. Blood platelet accumulation occurs and causes blood clots in the infected area due to a cut or a tear in the lining of blood vessels. Also, during childbirth, the release of Oxytocin that helps intensify contractions is one of the best examples to illustrate positive feedback. Once Oxytocin is released during contractions, the sensor that releases the Oxytocin still does not stop or deactivates as the process still needs to support and safeguard the mother with similar substance during heavy bleed.

Communication Barriers: Simplifying the Communication Process

The communication process can be much more difficult than a person thinks. Unfortunately, many times a presenter does not realize that their message is being lost until it is too late and they have gone through an entire meeting/lecture talking away about something that their colleagues/audience thinks is absolutely meaningless. Here are some helpful questions to ask yourself before attempting to relay a message to a large audience.

Communication barriers may be categorized as follows: Assumptions about yourself — Do I really have something to offer? Is it safe for me to offer suggestions? Do I really want to share the information? Will others really understand? How will the communication affect my self-esteem? Attitudes about the message itself — Is the information valuable? Do I see the information correctly or understand it well enough to describe it to others? Is it organized? Am I comfortable with what I am saying? Can I maintain eye contact? Sensing the receiver’s reaction — Do I become aware of whether or not the receiver is actually understanding? Or, in other words, can I “sense” from certain cues or reactions by the receiver, whether or not we are communicating? Am I aware of the receiver’s needs? interests?

Communication can easily be simplified. All you have to do is know the major causes of communication failures and detect them as they occur. Typically, people involved in communication breakdowns are either (a) utterly unaware that the communication has failed and that misunderstanding has resulted; or (b) painfully aware of a communication blockage — or complete breakdown — and frustrated by not knowing the reasons why. In either case, people are powerless to handle or remedy the problem. Remember, the expert communicator not only learns to detect communication barriers but also to anticipate them and use an appropriate remedy to overcome them.